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Decode Type 2 Diabetes Management through this Easy Guidebook

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Decode Type 2 Diabetes Management through this Easy Guidebook

Type 1 & 2 diabetes explained

Diabetes is a chronic condition in which your body’s ability to regulate blood sugar levels is impaired. In type 1 diabetes, pancreatic function is affected and it can no longer produce insulin – the hormone that your body needs for the regulation of glucose or sugar. In type 2 diabetes, your body’s ability to produce insulin may be impaired or it may no longer be able to use the hormone effectively¹.

With both types of diabetes, this means that blood glucose or blood sugar can no longer be utilised efficiently as a source of energy. This causes a build-up of glucose in your blood. When blood sugar levels spike and reach its peak, it is described as hyperglycaemia. This is why the defining feature of diabetes is an elevation of blood sugar levels.

Warning Signs of Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is often asymptomatic and symptoms can develop slowly, over a period of time, making them hard to discern. Here are the symptoms of type 2 diabetes:

  • Increased thirst and hunger
  • Increased frequency of urination
  • Fatigue or tiredness
  • Delayed wound healing (ie. cuts, bruises take longer to heal)
  • Feeling of numbness or tingling sensation in the hands and feet
  • Darkening of armpit and neck skin
  • Unexpected weight loss
  • Blurred vision

Factors that increase your risk of type 2 diabetes

Some of the factors that impact your glucose levels include the following:

  • Overweight and obesity
  • Central obesity or belly fat
  • A sedentary lifestyle with little to no movement or physical activity
  • Family history of diabetes
  • High cholesterol level
  • Age (the risk of type 2 diabetes increases with advancing age, especially after age 45).
  • History of pre-diabetes
  • Presence of conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
  • History of gestational diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy)

Type 2 diabetes diagnosis

In order to confirm the diagnosis of diabetes, your healthcare professional may perform the following test, which may vary from clinical settings. The tests may include the following but not limited to2:

Haemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) test – This test measures the amount of blood glucose attached to haemoglobin, revealing average levels of blood glucose over the past few months. This test does not require fasting.

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test – This is not a commonly performed test, Not used as commonly as the others, oral glucose tolerance testing is used to gauge your body’s responsiveness to sugar. The test is conducted at two intervals – once before having a glucose drink (this requires an 8 hour fast prior to testing), and then two hours after having the drink, to measure your body’s responsiveness to glucose. A version of this test is most commonly used to diagnose gestational diabetes (a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy).

Depending on the findings from these tests, healthcare providers may advise you to undergo further tests to determine between type 1 or type 2 diabetes. This is for them to help you take better control of the condition as soon as possible. Regular diagnostic and screening tests are also used by healthcare professionals so that they can monitor and manage the condition more effectively.

A1C test – This test is used to identify pre-diabetes and diabetes. It is crucial in diabetes management as it helps monitor the efficacy of your diabetes treatment over time. It is a simple blood test that indicates your average blood sugar levels over the past two to three months. If you are meeting your diabetes management goals, your healthcare professional would recommend testing at least twice a year. If not, you may be required to test more often.

PC test – Also known as Post Cibum (PC) or Postprandial (PP), this test measures your blood glucose levels exactly two hours after eating a meal. Your healthcare professional may also order a fasting blood glucose test along with this test. If you are asked to fast, avoid eating for a minimum of 8 hours, drinking juice, coffee or tea, smoking, chewing gum, or exercise.

Type 2 Diabetes Management after diagnosis

The Hello Health Group conducted a survey that can further our understanding of the general practices and perceptions of people living with type 2 diabetes in Southeast Asia^.

The Hello Health Group conducted a survey that can further our understanding of the feelings and concerns people in Southeast Asia had around managing Type 2 diabetes.

Although nearly three quarters of the Indian respondents recognised the importance of different areas of self-management, 38% felt that they did not have adequate information on dietary approaches to diabetes management and just 33% felt optimistic about adhering to an appropriate diabetes diet regime^.

A diagnosis of type 2 diabetes can be hard to deal with and an information gap can make it even more challenging. So, here are some diet and lifestyle recommendations that you can adopt to help you feel more in control.

Smart food choices

The defining feature of any diet to manage diabetes is the focus on ‘whole’ or unprocessed foods including fresh fruits and veggies, whole grains, nuts, seeds, and lean meats. At the same time intake of heavily or ultra-processed foods must be severely restricted or eliminated as they tend to contain many added ingredients, such as sugar, trans fat, artificial colours or preservatives.

You should also keep in mind that not all carbs are bad. Foods that contain complex carbs or slow digesting carbs (ie. whole grains, barley, brown rice), healthy fats, proteins, fibre, vitamins, and minerals, are essential elements in any balanced diet. A balanced diet can provide you with the required amounts of necessary vitamins and minerals. While supplements can be used to compensate for any dietary deficiency that may occur due to different reasons.

It would also be a good idea for you to consult your healthcare professional for guidance on a personalised meal plan that focuses on low glycaemic foods (read more about this in our article here) as this can help to stabilise blood sugar levels and avoid spikes.

Of course, when it comes to managing diabetes effectively, dietary changes extend beyond food choices. You should also adopt healthy eating habits, such as controlling portion size and eating at fixed and regular intervals to keep blood sugar levels stable and prevent sudden spikes.

Physical activity

Diabetes control does not require any specific exercise as any form of physical activity that raises your heart rate and breathing rate strengthens the cardiovascular system, which includes your heart and lungs. This is why cardio or aerobic exercises such as walking, swimming, or cycling are so effective at improving and maintaining blood glucose control. As far as possible, try to dedicate at least 30 minutes of your time to such activities, 3 days a week3. In addition to cardio, weight or strength training exercises and yoga can help build strength and balance, which improves your overall fitness levels and also aids weight loss.

Yoga is widely accepted as both a form of physical exercise and a stress reduction technique that can help to lower levels of cortisol (the main hormone associated with stress and anxiety). As levels of cortisol drop, feelings of stress in the body are also reduced4.

Medication

For many patients, diet and exercise alone may not suffice for the management of blood sugar levels. In such cases, your healthcare professional may prescribe diabetes medications. If you can’t maintain your target blood sugar level with diet and exercise, your healthcare professional may prescribe diabetes medications. Medication needs can change over time as nowadays medications are quite advanced with different types of medications.

How supplements can support type 2 diabetes management

The survey conducted by Hello Health Group showed that 86% of the survey participants in India regarded diet or nutrition as the most important area of focus in any diabetes self-management plan. However, many of those living with diabetes indicated that they had inadequate knowledge about diabetes-specific formulas, with over 40% expressing interest in learning more about such products and how they could use them to improve blood sugar management^.

Consuming diabetes-specific nutrition as a meal replacement for breakfast and afternoon or evening snacks has resulted in lower blood glucose levels after breakfast, for those living with Type 2 diabetes.

Supplements with micronutrients like zinc and chromium may be beneficial for people with diabetes. Zinc and chromium are important for carbohydrate metabolism and supplementation has been shown to aid glycaemic control in individuals who have type 2 diabetes5,6. Similarly, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) could offer increased protection against heart disease by improving various factors that affect heart disease risk7. Vitamin B12 is also advised for people who have low levels of this vitamin, which is not uncommon among patients who take the diabetes medication metformin8.

Ensure® is the #1 selling diabetes supplement nutrition drink in the world* and contains 35 nutrients for effective blood glucose management. The formula is clinically-proven to aid glucose level management and has a low glycaemic index (GI) to help manage blood glucose response**. It can help manage hunger and contains chromium, which contributes to the maintenance of normal blood glucose levels.

Although vitamins and minerals are best obtained directly through dietary sources, taking them as diabetes-specific nutritional supplements is often necessary and can help to ensure that you meet your nutritional requirements. If you are considering supplements, make it a point to first discuss options that work best for you with your healthcare professional.

Looking for more ways to keep safe in the new normal while managing diabetes? Take our fun quiz here and learn how you can champion your immunity!

Footnotes:

* Source: Euromonitor International Limited; total global retail sales in 2020 for diabetic diet enhancer drinks that are not marketed as a meal replacement product. Euromonitor and Abbott calculation based in part on Lifestyle Nutrition custom homescan panel database and Health Shopper survey for Abbott’s custom Diabetes Nutrition category for the 52 weeks ending January 2nd, 2021 time period, Total US All Outlet. Copyright © 2021, NielsenIQ Consumer LLC., and Euromonitor Passport Consumer Health 2021.

** Glucerna includes slow release carbohydrates to help minimise blood sugar spikes among people living with diabetes.

Devitt, A.A., Oliver, J.S., Hegazi, R.A. and Mustad, V.A., 2012. Glycemia targeted specialized nutrition (GTSN) improves postprandial glycemia and GLP-1 with similar appetitive responses compared to a healthful whole food breakfast in persons with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled trial. Journal of Diabetes Research and Clinical Metabolism, 1(20), pp.1-18.

^The survey was commissioned by Abbott and conducted by Hello Health Group from May to July 2021 across Vietnam, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, India, and Taiwan with 771 respondents who live with type 2 diabetes

Hello Health Group does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.

Sources
  1. What is Diabetes?; National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). 2016 Dec https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/overview/what-is-diabetes
  2. Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2021; American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2021 Jan 1:44(Supplement 1):S15-33.
  3. Sheri R. Colberg, Ronald J. Sigal, Jane E. Yardley, Michael C. Riddell, David W. Dunstan, Paddy C. Dempsey, Edward S. Horton, Kristin Castorino and Deborah F. Tate. Physical Activity/Exercise and Diabetes: A Position Statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care 2016 Nov; 39(11): 2065-2079.
  4. Herpreet Thind, Ryan Lantini, Brittany L. Balletto, Marissa L. Donahue, Elena Salmoirago-Blotcher, Beth C. Bock, and Lori A.J. Scott-Sheldon. The effects of yoga among adults with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI).
  5. Huang, H., G. Chen, Y. Dong, Y. Zhu, and H. Chen; Chromium supplementation for adjuvant treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: Results from a pooled analysis. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2018, 62, 1700438
  6. Wang, X., W. Wu, W. Zheng, X. Fang, L. Chen, L. Rink, J. Min, and F. Wang; Zinc supplementation improves glycemic control for diabetes prevention and management: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2019, 110, 76-90.
  7. Sanz-París A, Matía-Martín P, Martín-Palmero Á, Gómez-Candela C, Robles MC. Diabetes-specific formulas high in monounsaturated fatty acids and metabolic outcomes in patients with diabetes or hyperglycaemia. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Nutrition. 2020 Nov 1;39(11):3273-82.
  8. Reinstatler L, Qi YP, Williamson RS, Garn JV, Oakley GP. Association of biochemical B12 deficiency with metformin therapy and vitamin B12 supplements: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2006. Diabetes care. 2012 Feb 1;35(2):327-33.
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Written by Hello Swasthya Medical Panel Updated कुछ दिन पहले
Medically reviewed by Dr. Lisa Angelica Kuhn