Diabetes Mellitus Type 1: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

What is Diabetes Mellitus Type 1?|Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus Type 1|Causes of Diabetes Mellitus Type 1|Risk factors of Diabetes Mellitus Type 1|Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus Type 1|Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus Type 1|Lifestyle Changes for Diabetes Mellitus Type 1|Home Remedies for Diabetes Mellitus Type 1
    Diabetes Mellitus Type 1: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

    What is Diabetes Mellitus Type 1?

    Diabetes Mellitus Type 1, also known as Juvenile diabetes or Insulin-dependent diabetes, occurs when the pancreas produces less or no insulin. Insulin allows cells to absorb and utilise glucose. The condition can occur at any age, although it usually develops in childhood itself. Once a person develops the condition, he/she needs to take insulin for the rest of their life. It is caused by the genetic predisposition or faulty beta cells in the pancreas.

    Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus Type 1

    Symptoms of diabetes type 1 include:

    • Excess hunger
    • Excess thirst
    • Fatigue
    • Weight loss
    • Irritability
    • Frequent urination
    • Blurry vision
    • Dry mouth
    • Heavy breathing

    Type 1 diabetes can cause several complications. That includes:

    • Type 1 diabetes can cause heart failure, high blood pressure, or high cholesterol.
    • Those with diabetes type 1 have more chances of getting skin infections.
    • Those suffering from the disease for over a decade are likely to develop eye problems.
    • Diabetes can also cause kidney failure.

    Read More : Uric Acid Test: Why and How is it Done?

    Causes of Diabetes Mellitus Type 1

    The cause of the autoimmune reaction is yet unknown. The condition occurs when the body’s own immune system mistakenly attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, instead of protecting them.

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    Risk factors of Diabetes Mellitus Type 1

    Some common risk factors for type 1 diabetes are:

    Family history

    The chances of you getting diabetes type 1 are higher if anyone in your family has the disease.


    There are certain genes that contribute to the development of diabetes.


    Although anyone can get the disease, there are more chances of children between 4 and 7 years of age and 10 and 14 years of age to develop type 1 diabetes. Hence it is also known as Juvenile diabetes.

    Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus Type 1

    Glycated haemoglobin (A1c) test

    Glycated haemoglobin (A1c) test helps to measure the average blood sugar levels in the last 12 weeks. HbA1c level of 6.5 per cent or greater indicates diabetes. The test isn’t recommended for pregnant women.

    Read More : HbA1c Test: Why and How is it Done?

    Random blood sugar test

    Random blood sugar tests are conducted at any time of the day. If the test indicates the blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL or higher, it indicates diabetes.

    Blood test

    Blood tests are conducted after fasting overnight. If the result shows blood sugar levels between 100 and 125 mg/dL it indicates prediabetes, while blood sugar levels over 126 mg/dL indicates diabetes.

    The above test helps to confirm whether you have diabetes or not. But to understand whether you have diabetes type 1 or 2; your doctor will check your blood for certain autoantibodies.

    Read More : Complete Blood Count Test: Why and How is it Done?

    Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus Type 1

    If you have type 1 diabetes, you need to take insulin several times a day as your body no longer produces the hormone. There are different types of insulin that work at different speeds. Some of the most commonly used insulin injector types include needle, insulin pump, and insulin pen. There are two main types of insulin that are used – long-acting and short-acting. This is based on the amount of time taken to act in the body and remain active.

    Other medications

    • To keep your kidneys protected, your doctor may prescribe angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs).
    • In order to protect your heart, you may also require cholesterol-lowering drugs and blood thinners.

    Lifestyle Changes for Diabetes Mellitus Type 1

    • Follow healthy eating and keep a track on the carbohydrate level. Make sure your diet includes low-fat and high-fibre foods such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grain.
    • Avoid eating bread and artificially sweetened foods.
    • Follow a proper diet plan as advised by your doctor.
    • Include a lot of physical activities such as walking, swimming, and cycling in your daily routine. While performing any physical activity keep a track of your blood sugar levels.
    • Check your blood sugar levels before you start driving.
    • If your job demands a lot of physical energy, make sure you take breaks at regular intervals to check your blood sugar and eat regularly.
    • Women with type 1 diabetes are more likely to face pregnancy-related complications. Hence it is important to control your diabetes during pregnancy.
    • Wash your feet daily with lukewarm water and apply a good quality moisturiser.
    • Immediately consult with your doctor if you come across any cuts, swelling, or itching on your body.
    • Quit alcohol and tobacco. It increases the risk of a number of health complications such as heart stroke and kidney disease.
    • Avoid taking stress. The stress may affect the proper functioning of insulin in the body.

    Read More : Benefits of Walking: Staying Fit made Easier

    Home Remedies for Diabetes Mellitus Type 1


    Cinnamon stimulates insulin activities and helps to prevent diabetes. Make sure you don’t consume the herb in excess quantities. Consume a teaspoon of grounded cinnamon with a cup of warm water at any time of the day. You can even boil cinnamon in two cups of water and consume the water once it reaches room temperature.

    Aloe vera

    Aloe vera has anti-inflammatory properties and helps to control blood sugar levels.

    Java Plum

    Java Plum, also known as Jamun, helps to lower blood sugar levels. It is advised to consume 100 grams of the fruit on a daily basis.

    Vitamin C

    Consuming foods rich in Vitamin C on a daily basis helps to improve blood sugar levels. Fruits and vegetables rich in Vitamin C include blackcurrants, mustard spinach, kale, kiwis, broccoli, and lemons.

    Hello Health Group does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment.

    Hello Health Group does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.

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    Written by Nikita Updated 27/11/2021
    Fact Checked by Nikhil deore